Pequenos negócios 68

"A Checklist for Reasoning: 1. All reasoning has a purpose (take time to state your purpose clearly; distinguish your purpose from related purposes; check periodically to be sure you are still on target; choose significant and realistic purposes); 2. All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some questions, solve some problem (take time to clearly and precisely state the question at issue; express the question in several ways to clarify its meaning and scope; break the question into sub-questions; identify if the question has one right answer, is a matter of mere opinion, or requires reasoning from more than one point of view); 3. all reasoning is based on assumptions; (clearly identify your assumptions and determine whether they are justifiable; consider how your assumptions are shaping your point of view); 4. all reasoning is done from some point of view (identify your point of view; seek other points of view and identify their strengths as well as weaknesses; strive to be fair-minded in evaluating all points of view); 5. all reasoning is based on data, information and evidence (restrict your claims to those supported by the data you have; search for information that opposes your position as well as information that supports it; make sure that all information used is clear, accurate, and relevant to the question at issue; make sure you have gathered sufficient information); 6. all reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas (identify key concepts and explain them clearly; consider alternative concepts or alternative definitions to concepts; make sure you are using concepts with care and precision); 7. All reasoning contains inferences or interpretations by which we draw conclusions and give meaning to data (infer only what the evidence implies; check inferences for their consistency with each other; identify assumptions which lead you to your inferences); 8. all reasoning leads somewhere or has implications and consequences (trace the implications and consequences that follow from your reasoning; search for negative as well as positive implications; consider all possible consequences)."

Fonte: Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda (2003) The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools, Foundation for Critical Thinking, pp. 3-4.
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