Pequenos negócios 51

"Innovation is a destroyer of tradition; thus, it requires careful planning to ensure success. By necessity, the productivity benefits of new technology will change the nature of work. Any introduction of new technology should include employee familiarization to prepare workers for new tasks and to provide input into the technology interface design (e.g., will typing skill be required, or will employees just point and click?). For services, the impact of new technology may not be limited to the back office. It could require a change in the role that customers play in the service delivery process. Customer reaction to the new technology, determined through focus groups or interviews, also could provide input into the design to avoid future problems of acceptance (e.g., consider the need for surveillance cameras at automated teller machines). In writing about his experiences installing computer systems, Robert Radchuk has developed a 10-step planning guide to manage the implementation process. The following modified version of these steps includes the concerns for employees and customers. Step 1: Orientation and education. Become knowledgeable about the new technology and where it is headed. Visit trade shows and other users to gain hands-on familiarity. Secure the active involvement of a senior manager to champion the technology. Step 2: Technology opportunity analysis. Undertake a feasibility study to define opportunities, estimate costs, and identify benefits. Benchmark the use of the technology in other industries. Step 3: Application requirements analysis. Define the requirements for the new technology, and identify the hardware and software to be purchased. Refine cost and benefit estimates. Step 4: Functional specification. Define the operating characteristics of the application, including the inputs, outputs, operator interface, and type of equipment to be used. This working document will be used in interactions with users of the system; thus, it should be an explicit definition in no technical terms of how the system will work. Step 5: Design specification. Produce a specific engineering design with inputs from users, both employees and customers, to evaluate the effectiveness of the system interfaces. For example, as noted in chapter 1, burger King has a mock-up of a typical store in a Miami warehouse where new technology ideas are tested in a simulated environment before their introduction into the marketplace. Step 6: Implementation planning. Using project planning techniques, such as Microsoft Project for Windows, develop a detailed implementation plan. This plan should account for all activates, such as personnel familiarization and training, facilities planning, prototype testing, and an initial operation in parallel with the current system until the new technology is debugged. Step 7: Equipment selection and contract commitments. Contract for equipment purchases, and schedule the equipment for delivery as per the implementation plan. Step 8: Implementation. Execute the implementation plan, and prepare progress reports for senior management. Step 9: Testing of technology. Before committing to full-blown operations, test the technology. If a simulation is not possible, the new technology could be introduced at one or more trial sites before the entire service network is committed. Specific tests must be defined in advance to evaluate the system's response to anticipated demands. Step 10: Review of results. Document information that has been learned from the implementation of new technology can be competitive advantage."
Fonte: James A.; Fitzsimmons, Mona J. (2004) Service Management: Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology, McGraw/Irwin., pp. 73-74.
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