Pequenos negócios 72

"Implementation involves two stages: the introductory stage and the growth stage. The Introductory Stage. When introducing a new product, you should (1) analyze present and future market situations, (2) fit the product to the market, and (3) evaluate your company's resources. Analyze Market Situations. This step determines the opportunities that lie in present and future market situations, as well as problems and adverse environmental trends that will affect your company. Because market size and growth are vital, potential growth rate should be forecast as accurately as possible. Fit Product to Market. You should design your products to fit the market and then find other markets that fit those products. A market niche too small to interest large companies may be available. For example, a small firm manufacturing truck springs found that its product was a standard item produced by larger competitors that benefited from economies of scale. Because price competition was so severe, management decided to specialize in springs for swimming pool diving boards. This change in product strategy proved to be highly profitable. Evaluate Company Resources. Your company's strengths, as well as its limitations, should be determined at each stage of the marketing process. Financial, cost, competitive, and timing pressures must be viewed realistically, and successes and failures need to be understood and regarded as important learning experiences. The Growth Stage. Once you begin to grow, you can adopt one of three strategies: (1) expand products to reach new classes of customers, (2) increase penetratoin in the existing target market, or (3) make no marketing innovations but try instead to hold you present market share by product design and manufacturing innovations. Expand Products to Reach New Markets. To reach new markets, you may add related products within the present product line, add products unrelated to the present line, find new applications in new markets for the firm's product, or add customized products, perhaps upgrading from low-quality to medium- or high-quality goods. This is diversification, or product line expansion, which tends to increase profits; contribute to long-range growth; stabilize production, employment, and payrolls; fill out a product line; and lower administrative overhead cost per unit. The major pitfall of diversification is that the firm may not have the resources to compete effectively outside its established market niche. But the advantages seem to outweigh the pitfalls in most cases. Increase Penetration of Present Market. You many want to increase the sales of existing products to existing customers. If so, you might reduce the number and variety of products and models to produce substantial operating economies. Make No Marketing Innovations. The strategy of retaining current marketing practices without trying to innovate may suit your company if its strength lies in its technical competence. It is often advisable for retail store owners to follow this strategy. Over the long term, a firm may follow one strategy for several years with the intent to change after certain marketing goals have been reached. But the change should occur if progress is desired."

Fonte: Megginson, L. C.; Byrd, M. J.; Megginson, W. L. (2003), Small Business Management: An Entrepreneur's Guidebook, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, p. 184-185.
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